Basics of Hardware and software | Computer Awareness Lesson - 7

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Published at : 25 Jan 2021
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Computer Awareness Series : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLxJNbXGrHdcV1XAQS3-P7D2tfRIrYI5sl


This is session is about Basics of Hardware and software Basics of Hardware and software. We will be getting to know about primary memory vs secondary memory through primary memory example.

Primary memory and secondary memory in computer are random access memory, secondary memory storage devices.
We have discussed briefly on read only memory explained, eeprom memory.

The major types

Software types in computer : system software and application software.

Application software and system software are the two major classification in types of softwares.

application software examples are discussed.

Computer for competitive exams, computer in education are this series’ focus.

Hardware

Hardware refers to the physical components of the computer. Monitor, Keybord, Cpu are the three major parts of a computer.
Here, CPU is the main component of the computer. Again, CPU is divided into three major parts.
1. Control Unit
2. Arithmetic Logic Unit
3. Memory
1. Control unit

This unit controls the operations of all parts of a computer. It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.


 It converts the user input and converts them into signals sends to ALU Unit.
 It uses clock inputs to maintain the sequence of the data, this speed is the frequency of the data processing and it is measured in Megahertz.

2. Arithmetic Logic Unit
An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of CPU System that carries out arithmetic and logic operations.
• An ALU performs basic arithmetic, examples of arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
• It also performs logical operations like comparisons of values such as NOT, AND, and OR.
• All information in a computer is stored in the form of binary numbers, i.e. 0 and 1.
3. Memory Unit

The memory unit stores the data, instructions and sends the information to all the other units of the computer whenever it needs.
It is also known as primary memory or RAM (Random access memory).
All input and output are transmitted through main memory.
There are two kinds memory we often refers to when it comes to computer memory system. Those are:
1. Primary Memory
Primary memory select any part of memory when user want to save the data in memory but that may not be store permanently on that location. It also has another name i.e. RAM.
Random Access Memory (RAM):
The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) due to the random selection of memory locations. It performs both read and write operations on memory. If power failures happened in systems during memory access then you will lose your data permanently. So, RAM is volatile memory.
2. Secondary Memory
Secondary memory is external and permanent memory that is useful to store the external storage media such as DVD Drive, Hard Disk, Memory cards, Memory Sticks like Pen Drive. Secondary memory deals with following types of components.
Read Only Memory (ROM) :
memory location that offer huge ROM is permanent types of standards to save data. But it work with read only operation. No data lose happen whenever power failure occur during the ROM memory work in computers.
ROM memory has several models such names are following.

We have added pronunciation to our vocabulary learning series as per your feedback…thank you.!
1. PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM) maintains large storage media but can’t offer the erase features in ROM. This type of RO maintains PROM chips to write data once and read many. The programs or instructions designed in PROM can’t be erased by other programs.
2. EPROM : Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory designed for recover the problems of PROM and ROM. Users can delete the data of EPROM thorough pass on ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed.
3. EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory similar to the EPROM but it uses electrical beam for erase the data of ROM.


1. System Software
2. Application Software
System software

The System software consists of low level (binary) programs that interact with the computer at the very basic level. Examples of system softwares are Operating Systems, Compilers and Utilities for managing computer resources (printer software, scanner software etc).

Some of the Major Operating systems that used widely around the globe is
1. Windows OS
2. Mac OS
3. Linux OS




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