Anatomy of Large Intestine (Structures and Walls)

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Meditay
Published at : 16 Nov 2020
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Content:
Introduction 0:00
Parts of the Large Intestine 0:23
Caecum and the Appendix 1:29
Positions of the Appendix 03:30
Ascending Colon 4:12
Transverse Colon 5:33
Descending Colon 8:20
Sigmoid 10:09
Rectum 11:00
Wall of the Large Intestine 12:42

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Parts of Large intestine:
Function of small intestine: Absorption of water and electrolytes.

Caecum:
- Holotopy of Caecum and appendix: Right inguinal region
- Caecum about 6-8 cm long and 7-7,5 cm wide.
- Has Ostium Ileale which is protected by Iliocecal valve

Appendix Vermiformis (Worm Shape)
- 2,4 cm long and 0,5 cm wide
- Connected with Caecum with ostium appendix vermiformis
Positions of appendix vermiform:
- Caudal position (40-50%)
- Medial position (17-20%)
- Lateral position (17-20%)
- Posterior position (9-13%)
- Anterior position

Ascending Colon:
- Holotopia of the ascending colon: right lateral region and right hypochondriac region
- Syntopia of ascending colon: Abdominal wall (anterior and laterally) Transverse abdominal muscle, musculus quadratus lumborum, and right kidney (Posteriorly)
- Curved and form Flexura coli dextra

Transverse Colon
- Goes from right colic flexure to flexura coli sinistra
- Holotopy of transverse colon: Right hypochondriac region, umbilical region and left hypochondriac region
- Sceletopy of transverse colon: between L1-L2
- Left colic flexure is higher than the right colic flexure because of ligamentum phrenicocolicum
- Attached to the posterior abdominal wall through mesocolon transverum.
- Syntopia of transverse colon: Liver, Stomach, and Spleen (Superior). Duodenum (posterior), Small intestines (inferior)

Descending Colon:
- Holotopy of descending colon lies in left lateral region
- Syntopia of descending colon: mostly same as descending colon
- Ascending and Descending colon are mesoperitoneal viscera (partly covered by peritoneum)

Sigmoid colon:
- 15-80 cm long, some people 1m long sigmoid colon
- Lies in left fossa iliaca

Rectum:
- Flexura sacralis
- Flexura Perinealis
- Ampulla recti
- Canalis Analis (anal canal)
- Anus

Walls of the Large Intestine:
Tunica Mucosa of the large intestine:
- Tunica mucosa forms Plicae Semilunares coli
- Has Glandulae Intestinales
- noduli lymphoidei solitarii
- Appendix vermiformis has norduli lymphoidei aggregati.
Appendix gets the name Tonsilla Abdominalis
- Forms Plica transversalis superior, media and inferior
- Columnae anales with sinus anales

Tela submucosa of large intestine
- has rectal venous plexus (hemorrhoidal plexus)
- forms the Hemorrhoidal zone
- Hemorrhoids protrudes from it

Tunica Muscularis
- Circular Internal Layer form:
- Internal anal sphincter (involuntary) and external anal sphincter (voluntary)
- Longitudinal external layer form 3 bands
- Tenia Libera, Tenia Omentalis, Tenia Mesocolica
- Haustrae Coli (Sacculations), Sulci Transversi correspond to plica semilunares coli

Tunica Serosa
- Intraperitoneal viscera (Caecum, Appendix Vermiformis, Transverse, Sigmoid colon and upper part of rectum)
- Mesoperitoneal viscera (Ascending, Descending, and middle part of rectum)


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